DNA and RNA analysis of 16s rRNA places N. sanguineum as a previously undetected but omnipresent genus/species within the alpha-2 –subgroup of Proteobacteria.  Bacteria closely related to Nanobacteria inhabit soil, hot springs, mammals, and plants.  Some of them can penetrate plant cells resulting is symbiosis (Rhizobia,) or cancer and other disease states (Agrobacteria, Phyllobacteria).  The alpha-2 subgroup contains Bartonella and Brucella, closely related and antigenically similar to N. sanguineum, known mammalian pathogens that invade cells, even fetuses, causing cytopathic effects and bacteremia.  Brucella is known to pass into the urine.  All three, Bartonella, Brucella, and Nanobacteria, share common properties; all are extremely difficult to culture and all are impermeable to standard stains.  All three invade mammalian tissues and cells, produce cytotoxic effect, and cause bacteremia -  bacteremia unlike that of any other known bacteria; huge numbers are present in the blood of individuals having relatively few symptoms.  Bartonella species cause chronic bacteremia in almost half of the Earth’s cats and rodents, and have recently been identified in ruminants such as deer, elk, and beef and dairy cattle.  In 22 beef cattle in a North Carolina herd, Nanobacterium sanguineum Antigen was found in 100% and Bartonella could be cultured from 50%.  Nanobacterium sanguineum has been reposited in the German Collection of Micororganisms (DSM No:  5819-5821).  Although N. sanguineum is gram negative, they do not pick up gram stain, but they share many surface characteristics with traditional gram-negative organisms, such as the presence in their membranes of porins, muramic acid; and lipopolysaccharide endotoxin is present in its biofilm. No other bacteria are so resistant to elimination as are nanobacteria.

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