Return to Immune Mechanisms Main Page
Immune Mechanisms of Atherosclerosis and Heart Failure - Bibliography
1. Inflammation and Atherosclerosis. Hansson, G. et al. Annu. Rev. Pathol. Mech. Dis. 2006. 1:297-329.
2. T Cells in Atherogenesis. For Better or For Worse? Robertson, A. and Hansson, G. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:2421-2432
3. The Complex Role of T-Cell-Based Immunity in Atherosclerosis. Aukrust, P. et al. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 2008, 10:236-243.
4.. Inflammation at the Molecular Interface of Atherogenesis An Anthropological Journey. Lamon, B, and Hajjar, D. The American Journal of Pathology, Vol. 173, No. 5, November 2008 pp. 1253-1260.
5. Inflammation and Atherosclerosis. Novel Insights Into Plaque Formation and Destabilization. Stoll, G. and Bendzus, M. Stroke 2006;37:1923-1932.
6. The role of inflammation, humoral and cell mediated autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Pereira, IV, et al. Swiss Med Wkly 2008;138(37-38):534-539.
7. Defects in regulation of local immune responses resulting in atherosclerosis. Ferencik, M. et al. Clinical and Developmental Immunology, Sept. 2005; 12(3):225-234.
8. Evidence for a Local immune Response in Atherosclerosis. Zhou, X, et al. Am J. of Pathol 1996, 149:359-366.
Lipid Infiltration, Modification, and Trapping
1.. Subendothelial Lipoprotein Retention as the Initiating Process in Atherosclerosis. Tabas, I, et al. Circulation 2007;116:1832-1844.
2. Structure of apolipoprotein B-100 in low density lipoproteins. Segrest, J, et al. Journal of Lipid Research Vol. 42, 2001 pp. 1346-1367.
3. Lipoprotein Lipase in the Arterial Wall. Pentikaimen, M, et al. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:211-217.
4. Lipoprotein lipase greatly enhances the retention of lipoprotein(a) to endothelial matrix. Auerbach, BJ, et al. Atherosclerosis 142 (1999) 89-96.
5. Lysophatidylcholine Enhances Cytokine-Induced Interferon Gamma Expression in Human T Lymphocytes. Nishi, E. et al. Circ. Res. 1998;83:508-515.
6. Aggregation, fusion, and vesicle formation of modified low density lipoprotein particles: molecular mechanisms and effects on matrix interactions. Oorni, K. et al. Journal of Lipid Research Vol.
7. Acid sphingomyelinase promotes lipoprotein retention within early atheromata and accelerates lesion progression. Devlin, C, et al. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008 Oct;28(10):17323-30.
Monocytes, Macrophages, and Antigen Capture/Antigen Presenting Cells
1. Role of Monocytes in Atherogenesis. Osterud, B. and Bjorklid, E. Physiol Rev 83: 1069-1112, 2003.
2. Expression of the Macrophage Scavenger Receptor in Atheroma. Geng, YJ, et al. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
1995;15:1995-2002.11. Macrophage Scavenger Receptor
Class A. Winther, M. et al. Artioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20:290-297.
3. Monocytes influence the fate of T cells challenged with oxidized low density lipoproteins towards apoptosis or MHC-restricted proliferation., Lortun, A, et al. Arthrosclerosis 156 (2001) 11-21.
4. Macrophage Foam Cell Formation During Early Atherogenesis Is Determined by the Balance Between Pro-Oxidants and Anti-Oxidants in Arterial cells and Blood Lipoproteins. Aviram, M. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling Vol. 1, No. 4, 1999 pp. 585-593.
LDL (Lipid) Oxidation
1. Infection and Inflammation Induce LDL Oxidation in Vivo. Memon, R. et al. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20:1536-1542.
2. Inflammation as a Possible Link Between Coronary and Carotid Plaque Instability. Lombardo, A. et al. Circulation 2004.
3. Plasma levels of oxidized-low-density-lipoproteins are higher in patients with unstable angina and correlated with angiographic coronary complex plaques. Anselmi, M. et al. Atherosclerosis 185 (2006) 114-120.
4. Oxidized LDL Induces Enhanced Antibody Formation and MHC Class II Dependent IFN-g Production in Lymphocytes From Healthy Individuals. Huang, YH, et al. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 1995;15:1577-1573.
Intra-Plaque T Cells and Antigenic Determinants
1. T lymphocytes from human atherosclerotic plaques recognize oxidized low density lipoprotein. Stemme, S. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad, Sci. Vol. 92 pp. 3893-3897, April 1995.
2. Costimulatory molecules in human atherosclerotic plaques: an indication of antigen specific T lymphocyte activation. De Boer, O. et al. Atherosclerosis 133 (1997) 227-234.
3. Colocalisation of intraplaque C reactive protein, complement, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and macrophages in stable and unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction. Meuwissen, M. et la. J Clin Pathol 2006;59:196-201.
4. Multiple bacteria contribute to intraplaque T-cell activation in atherosclerosis. Van deer Meer, J. et al. Eur J Clin Invest 2008; 38 (11): 857-862.
Acute Coronary Event - An Immune Frenzy
1. Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Show Oligoclonal T-Cell Recruitment Within Unstable Plaque. De Palma, R. et al. Circulation 2006;113:640-646.
2. Monoclonal T-Cell Proliferation and Plaque Instability in Acute Coronary Syndromes. Liuzzo, G. et al. Circualtion;102:2883-2888.
3. Unusual CD4+CD28null T Lymphocytes and Recurrence of Acute Coronary Events. Liuzzo, G. et al J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;50:1450-8.
4. Molecular Fingerprint of Interferon-g Signaling in Unstable Angina. Liuzzo, G. et al. Circulation 2110;103:1509-1514.reased Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-b1 as a Stabilizing Factor in Human Atherosclerotic Plaques. Cipolone, F, et al. Stroke 2004;35:2253-2257.
5. Autoimmunity in myocardial infarction. Liao, Y. and Cheng, X. International Journal of Cardiology 112 (2006) 21-26.
1. Cytokines in Atherosclerosis: Pathogenic and Regulatory Pathways. Tedgui, A. and Mallat, Z. Physiol Rev 86: 515-581, 2006.
2. Targeting Interferon-g to Treat Atherosclerosis. Gotsman, I and Lichtman, A. Circ. Res. 2007;101:333-334.
3. Interleukin-10 Deficiency Increases Atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and Low-density Lipoproteins in Apolopoprotein E Knockout Mice. Calgiui, G, et al.
4. Interleukin-10 Blocks Atherosclerotic Events In vitro and In Vivo. Pinderski, L, et al. Arterscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999;19:2847-2853.
5. Interlekin-15 Expression in Atherosclerotic Plaque. Houtkamp, MA. Et al. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2001;21:1208-1213.
6. Preprocedural Level of Soluble
CD40L Is Predictive of Enhanced Inflammatory Response and Restenosis After
Coronary Angioplasty. Cipollone, F. et al. Circulation 2003;108:2776-2782.42. Acute myocardial infarction induces hypothalamic
cytokine synthesis. Francis, J, et al. Am J Physiol Heart Circ. Physiol
T Cell Subsets
8. The role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in breaking peripheral Th17/Treg balance in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Li, Q. et al. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 394 (2010) 836-842.
9. The Th17/Treg imbalance in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Cheng, X. et al. Clinical immunology (2008) 127, 89-97.
10. Low Numbers of FOXP3 Positive Regulatory T Cells Are Present in all Developmental Stages of Human Atherosclerotic Lesions. De Boer, O. et al. PLos ONE August 2007 Issue 8 e779.
22. Genetically Programmed Biases in Th1 and Th2 Immune Responses Modulates Atherogenesis. Schulte, S, et al. Am J Pathol 2008, 172:1500-1508.
23. Hypercholesterolemia Is Associated with a T Helper (Th) 1/Th2 Switch of the Autoimmune Response in Atherosclerotic apo E-knockout Mice. Zhou, X, etr al. J. Clin. Invest. 1998. 101:1717-1725.
Heat Shock Protein
1. Heat Shock Proteins In Autoimmune disease. Raska, M, et al. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomac Czech Repub. 2005, 149(2):243-9.
2. Increased expression of Heat shock Protein 65 Coincides with a Population of Infiltrating T Lymphocytes in Atherosclerotic Lesions of Rabbits Specifically Responding to Heat Shcok Protein 65. Xu, R, et al. J. Clin. Invest. 1993;91:2693-2702.
3. Association of Serum Antibodies to Heat Shock Protein 65 with Coronary Calcification Levels. Zhu, J, et al. Circulation 2004;109:36-41.
4. Heat Shock proteins in cardiovascular disease and the prognostic value of heat shock protein related measurements. Packley, A and Frostegard, F. Heart 2005;91:1124-1126.
5. Demonstration of Heat Shock Protein 60 Expression and T Lymphocytes Bearing a/b org/d Receptor in Human Atherosclerotic Lesions. Kleindienst, R, et al. Am. Jr. of Path. 142(6) June 1993 pp. 1927-1937.
6. Association of Serum Antibodies to heat-shock Protein 65 with Borderline Hypertension. Frostegard, J, et al. Hypertension 1997;29-40.
7. Demonstration of Heat Shock Protein 60 Expression and T Lymphocytes Bearing a/b or g/d Receptor in Human Atherosclerotic Lesions. Kleindeist, R. et al. American Journal of Pathology Vol. 42, No. 6, June 1993 pp. 1927-1937.
Atherosclerosis - Other Topics
16. Clinically stable angina pectoris is not necessarily associated with histologically stable atherosclerotic plaques. Der Wal, A. et akl. Heart 1996;76:312-316.
62. In Vivo Downregulation of T Helper cell 1 Immune Responses Reduces Atherogenesis in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice. Laurant, E, et al. Circulation 2001;104:197-202.
55. Kaartinen, M, et al. JACC Vol. 32, No. 3, Sept. 1998:606-12.
59. Clinically stable angina pectoris is not necessarily associated with histologically stable atherosclerotic plaques. Van der Wal, A, et al. Heart 1996;76:312-316.
37. Injury Primes the Innate Immune System for enhanced Toll-Like Receptor Reactivity. Paterson, HM, et al. The Journal of Immunology. 2003, 172:1473-1483.
16. CXCL16/SR-PSOX Is an Interferon-g Regulated Chemokine and Scavenger Receptor Expressed in Atherosclerotic Lesions. Wuttge, DM, et al. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2004;24:750-755.
29. Expression of Lectin-like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptror-1 in Human Atherosclerotic Lesions. Kataoka, H, et al. Circulation 1999;99:3110-3117.
31. T-cell recognition of lipid peroxidation products breaks tolerance to self proteins. Wuttge, D, et al. Immunology 1999;98:273-279.
38. Expression of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Rat Heart with Ischemia/Reperfusion and Limitation of Infarct Size by Treatment with Antibodies against Cell Adhesion Molecules. Yamazaki, T, et al. Am J of Path. Vol. 143, No. 2, August 1993 pp. 410-418.
39. Prognostic Value of Activated Toll-Like Receptor-4 in Monocytes Following Acute Myocardial Infarction. Sheu, J, et al. Int Heart J 2008;49:1-11.
40. Anti-Beta2-Glycoprotein 1 Antibodies as Risk Factors for Acute Myocardial Infarction. Ranzolin, a, et al. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004 pp. 141-1429.
50. Association Between Myocardial Infarction and the Mast Cells in the Adventitia of the Infarct-Related Coronary Artery. Laine, P, et al. Circulation 1999;99:361-369.
51. Perivascular Mast Cells Promote Atherogenesis and Induce Plaque Destabilization in Apolipoprotein E-deficient Mice. Bot, I, et al. Circulation 2007;115:2516-2525.
52. Activated Mast cells Induce Endothelial Cell Apoptosis by a Combined Action of Chymase and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha. Heikkila, H, et al. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 200828:309.
53. Activation of mast cells by incorporation of cholesterol into rafts. Baumruker, T, et al. International Immunology, Vol. 15, No. 10, pp. 1207-1218.
54. Mast Cells feel the strain. Chester, A. Cardiovascular Research 55 (2002) 13-15.
Cardiomyopathy, Metals, and CHF - DVD Two
1. Absence of auto-antibodies against cardiac troponin I predicts improvement of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. Leuschner, F. et al. European Heart Journal (2008) 29, 1949-1955.
2. Nasal vaccination with troponin reduces troponin specific T-cell responses and improves heart function in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Frenkel, D, et al. International Immunology, Vol. 21, No. 7, pp. 817-829.
3. Autoimmune Mechanisms Underlying Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Yochikawa, T, et al. Circ. J 2009; 73: 602-607.
4. The Treg/Th17 Imbalance in Patients with Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Li, J, et al. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 71, 298-303. 2010.
5. The TH17/Treg imbalance exists in patients with heart failure with normal ejection fraction and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Li, N, et al. Clinica Chimica Acta 411 (2010) 1963-1968.
6. Beta Blocker and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Therapy is Associated with Decreased Th1/Th2 Cytokine Rations and Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Patents with Chronic Heart Failure. Gage, J, et al. Neuroimmunomodulation 2004;11:173-180.
7. Cardiac Troponin I but Not Cardiac Troponin T Induces Severe Autoimmune Inflammation in the Myocardium. Goser, S. et al. Circulation 2006;114:1693-1702.
8. Cardiac troponins and autoimmunity: Their role in the pathogenesis of myocarditis and of heart failure. Kaya, Z, et al. Clinical Immunology (2010) 134, 80-88.
9. Clinical Significance of Troponin I Efflux and Troponin Auto Antibodies in Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Miettinen, K, et al. Journal of Cardiac Failure Vol. 14 No. 6 2008 481-488.
10. Autoantibodies against Cardiac Troponins. Ericksson, S, et al. NEJM 352;1:98-100, 1/6/05.
11. Identification of Cardiac Troponin I Sequence Motifs Leading to Heart Failure by Inducing Myocardial Inflammation and Fibrosis. Kaya, Z, et al. Circulation 2008 11:118(20):2063-2072.
12. Marked Elevation of Myocardial Trace Elements in Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Compared With Secondary Cardiac Dysfunction. Frustaci, A, et al. JACC 1999;33:1578-83.
13. Role of Cadmium and Magnesium in Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Smetana, R, and Glogar, D. Am J Cardiol Vol. 58, pp. 364-65, Aug. 1, 1986.
14. The Roles of Selenium and Mercury in the Pathogenesis of Viral Cardiomyopathy. Cooper, L, et al. CHF 2007;13:193-199.
15. Effects of methyl mercury on cytokines, inflammation and virus clearance in a common infection (Coxsackie B3 myocarditis). Ilback, N, et al. Toxicology Letters 89 (1996) 19-28.
16. Trace Element Distribution in Heart Tissue Sections Studied by Nuclear Microscopy Is Changed in Coxsackie Virus B3 Myocarditis in Methyl Mercury-Exposed Mice. Ilback, N, et al. Biological Trace Element Research Vol. 78, 2000 pp. 131-147.
17. Evidence for autoimmunity to myosin and other heart-specific autoantigens in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and their relatives. Caforio, A. et al. International Journal of Cardiology 54 (1996) 157-163.
18. Clinical implications of anti-heart autoantibodies in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Caforio, A. et al. Autoimmunity 2008; 41(1): 35-45.
Metals and Immune Upregulation
1. Simple chemicals can induce maturation and apoptosis of dendritic cells. Manome, H, et al. Immunology 1999 98 481-490.
2. Effects of deviating the Th2-response in murine mercury-induced autoimmunity towards a Th1-response. Haggovist, B, et al,. Clin Exp Immunol 2003; 134:2002-209.
3. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide both renders resistant mice susceptible to mercury-induced autoimmunity and exacerbates such autoimmunity in susceptible mice. Valugerdi, A, et al. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 141: 238-247. 2005.
4. Responsiveness of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells to thimerosal and mercury derivatives. Migdal, C, et la. Toxicol Appl. Pharmacol. 2010 Jul;246(1-2):66-73.
5. Cytokine Regulation of a Rodent Model of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Autoimmunity. Bagenstose, L, et al. Environ Health Perspect 107(suppl 5):807-810 (1999).
6. Disappearance of Immune Deposits with EDTA Chelation Therapy in a Case of IgA Nephropathy. Lin, J, and Lim, P. Am J Nephrol;12:457-460.
7. Activation of the immune System and Systemic Immune-Complex Deposits in Brown Norway Rats with Dental Amalgam Restorations. Hyultman, P, et al. J Dent Res 77(6): 1415-1425, June, 1998.
8. Mercury Induces an Unopposed Inflammatory Response in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Vitro. Gardner, R, et al. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 117 No. 12, Dec. 2009 pp. 1932-1938.
9. Reactive oxygen intermediates as apparently widely used messengers in the activation of the NF-kB transcription factor and HIV-1. Schreck, R, et al. The EMBO Journal vol. 10 pp. 2247-2258, 1991.
10. Mercury Activates Vascular Endothelial Cell Phospholipase D through Thiols and Oxidative Stress. Hagele, T, et al. International Journal of Toxicology, 26:57-69, 2007.
Overweight, Sleep Apnea, and Allergy
1. Reduced Adipose Tissue
Oxygenation in Human Obesity. Evidence for Rarefaction, Macrophage Chemotaxis,
and Inflammation Without an Angiogenic Response.
Pasarica, M, et al. Diabetes 58:718-725, 2009.
2. Reduction of Macrophage Infiltration and Chemoattractant Gene Expression Changes in White Adipose Tissue of Morbidly Obese Subjects After Surgery-Induced Weight Loss. Cancello, R. et al. Diabetes 54:2277-2286, 2005.
3. Adipose-immune interactions during obesity and caloric restriction: reciprocal mechanisms regulating immunity and health span. Dixit, V. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 84: 001-0011, Oct. 2008.
4. Emerging role of adipose tissue hypoxia in obesity and insulin resistance. Ye, J. International Journal of Obesity (2009) 33, 54-66.
5. Nutritional regulation of interleukin-6 release from adipocytes. Garcia-Escobar, E, et al. International Journal of Obesity (2010) 1-5.
6. Anti- inflammatory effects of excessive weight loss: potent suppression of adipose interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis factor a expression. Moschen, A. et al. Gut 2010;59:1259-63.
7. Relation Between Common Allergic Symptoms and Coronary Heart Disease Among NHANES III Participants. Am J Cardiol 2010;106:984-987.
Statins in Heart Failure
1. Atorvastatin Improves Left Ventricular Systolic Function and Serum Markers of Inflammation in Nonischemic Heart Failure. Sola, S. et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47:332-7.
2. Statins in the treatment of chronic heart failure: Biological and clinical considerations. Van der Harst, P. et al. Cardiovascular Research 71 (2006) 443-454.
43. Statins as a newly recognized type of immunomodulator. Keak, B, et al. Nature Medicine vol. 6, No. 12, Dec. 2000 pp. 1399-1402.
44. Simvastatin inhibits the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins by activated human Monocyte-derived macrophages. Girous, L, et al. Biochemica et Biophysics Acta 1165 (1993) 335-338
45. Lovastatin Reduces Expression of the Combined Adhesion and Scavenger Receptor CD36 in Human Monocytic Cells. Pietsch, A, et al. Biochemical Pharmacology Vol. 52, pp. 433-439, 1996.
46. Emerging mechanisms for secondary cardioprotective effects of statins. Miller, J. Cardiovascular Research 52 (2001) 5-7.
47. Simvastatin Reduces Graft vessel Disease and Mortality After Heart Transplantation. Wenke, K, et al. Circulation 1997;96:1398-402.
48. Statins inhibit oxidized-LDL-mediated LOX-1 expression, uptake of oxidized-LDL and reduction in PKB phosphorylation. Li, D, et al. Cardiovascular Research 52 (2001) 130-135.
63. Novel anti-inflammatory effect of statins: reduction of CD4+CD28null T lymphocyte frequency in patients with unstable angina. Brugaletta, S, et al. Heart 2006;92:249-150.
NF-kB, EECP, and ACEI/ARB
1. Effect of Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) on Inflammatory Cytokines and Adhesion Molecules in Patients with Angina Pectoris and Angiographic Coronary Artery Disease. Casey, D, et al. Am J Cardiol. 2008 Feb. 1; 101(3):300-302.
2. Irbesartan significantly reduces C reactive Protein concentration after 1 month of treatment in unstable angina. Biasucci, L, et al. Heart 2005;91:670-671.
3. Concurrent Treatment With Renin-Angiotensin system Blockers and Acetylsalicylic Acid Reduces Nuclear Factor kB Activation and C-Reactive Protein Expression in Human Carotid Artery Plaques. Sattler, J, et al. Stroke 2005;36:14-20.
4. Blockade of the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Stabilizes Atherosclerotic Plaques in Humans by Inhibiting Prostaglandin E2-Dependent Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity. Cipollone, R, et al. Circulation 2004;109:1482-1488.
5. Nuclear Factor-kB Is Selectively and Markedly Activated In Humans With Unstable Angina. Mitchie, M. Circulation 1998;98:1707-1713.
6. Nuclear factor-kB immunoreactivity is present in human coronary plaque and enhanced in patients with unstable angina pectoris. Wilson, S, et al. Atherosclerosis 160 (2002) 147-153.
7. Usefulness of Quinapril and Irbesartan to Improve the Anti-Inflammatory Response of Atorvastatin and Aspirin in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease. Lauten, W, et al. American Journal of Cardiology Vol. 91 May 1, 2003 pp.1116-1119.
8. Irbesartan, an Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Inhibitor, Regulates Markers of Inflammation in Patients With Premature Atherosclerosis. Navalkar, S, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:440-4.
9. Irbesartan, an Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Inhibitor, Regulates the Vascular Oxidative State in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease. Khan, B, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1662-7.
10. Enhanced External Counterpulsation Attenuates Atherosclerosis Progression Through Modulation of Proinflamatory Signal Pathway. Zhang, Y. et al. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:773-780.
11. Inflammatory Activation During Coronary Artery Surgery and Its Dose-Dependent Modulation by Statin/ACE-Inhibitor Combination. Radaelli, A. et al. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2750-2755.
12. Effect of Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) on Inflammatory Cytokines and Adhesion Molecules in Patients with Angina Pectoris and Angiographic Coronary Artery Disease. Casey, D, et al. Am J Cardiol. 2008 Feb. 1; 101(3):300-302.
13. Vascular Inflammation and the Renin-Angiotensin System. Braiser, AR, etal. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc. Biol. 2002;22:1257-1266.
1. Increased Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-b1 as a Stabilizing Factor in Human Atherosclerotic Plaques. Cipolone, F, et al. Stroke 2004;35:2253-2257.
2. Vitamin D Supplementation and Total Mortality. Autier, P, and Gandini, S. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(16):1730-1737.
3. Protective Role of Interleukin-10 in Atherosclerosis. Mallat, Z, et al. Circulation Research 1999;85:e17-e24.
4. Immune Modulatory Treatment of Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid Colitis with Calcitriol Is Associated with a Change of a T Helper (Th) 1/Th17 to a Th2 and Regulatory T Cell Profile. Daniel, C, et al. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol. 324 No. 1, pp. 23-33.
5. Vitamin D Receptor Agonists in the Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases: Selective Targeting of Myeloid but Not Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Penna, G, et al. J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:V69-V73.
6. Vitamin D and the Adaptive Immune System with Special Emphasis to Allergic Reactions and Allograft Rejection. Zitterman, A, et al. Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets, 2009,8,161-168.
7. Vitamin D supplementation
improves cytokine profiles in patients with congestive heart failure: a
double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Schleithoff, S, et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:754-9.
8. Calcitriol inhibits TNF-a-induced inflammatory cytokines in human trophoblasts. Diaz, L. et al Journal of Reproductive Immunology 81 (2009) 17-24.
9. Clinical trial: vitamin D3 in Crohns disease a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Jorgensen, S, et al. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010; 32:377-383.
10. Oral Administration of an Active Form of Vitamin D3 (Calcitriol) Decreases Atherosclerosis in Mice by Inducing Regulatory T Cells and Immature Dendritic Cells With Tolerogenic Functions. Takeda, M., et al. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2495-2503.
11. Vitamin D supplementation
improves cytokine profiles in patients with congestive heart failure: a
double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Schleithoff, S, et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:754-9.
12. Calcitriol inhibits TNF-a-induced inflammatory cytokines in human trophoblasts. Diaz, L. et al Journal of Reproductive Immunology 81 (2009) 17-24.
13. Vitamin D3 Suppresses Immune Reactions in Atherosclerosis, Affecting Regulatory T Cells and Dendritic Cell Function. Bobryshew, Y. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2317-2319.
1. Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid modulates CTLA-4 expression in murine CD4+ T-cells. Ly, L, et al. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 74 (2006) 29-37.
2. Fish-oil supplementation induces anti-inflammatory gene expression profiles in human blood mononuclear cells. Bouwens, M, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:415-24.
3. Dietary fatty acids influence the production of Th1 but not Th2-type cytokines. Wallace, F, et al. J. Leuloc. Biol. 69: 449-457; 2001.
4. Dietary (n-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Murine Th1/Th2 Balance toward the Th2 Pole by Suppression of Th1 Development. Zhang, P, et al. J. Nutr. 135: 1745-1751, 2005.
5. Beneficial Effect of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids in the Management of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and its Relationship to the Cytokine Network. Das, U. N. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids (1994) 51:207-213.
6. Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes. Mickleborough, t, et al. Am J Respir Critical Care Med 2003 Nov. 15 168(10):1181-89.
7. Fish Oil Supplementation Improves Left Ventricular Function in Children With Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Olgar, S, et al. (CHF. 2007;13:308-312) LeJaq.
8. Inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-a and interleukin 6 production by mononuclear cells following dietary fish-oil supplementation in healthy men and response to antioxidant co-supplementation. Trebble, T. et al. British Journal of Nutrion (2003), 90, 405-412.
1. Decreased Testosterone Levels in Men with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Effect of Low Dose Prednisone Therapy. Martens, H, et al. J Rheumatol 1994;21:1427-31.
2. Androgen Replacement Therapy in Male Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Cutolo, M, et al. Arthritis and Rheumatism, Vol. 34, No. 1 (January 1991) 1-5.
3. Inverse Relationship between Serum Levels of Interleukin-1b and Testosterone in Men with Stable Coronary artery Disease. Nettleship, J., et al. Horm Metab Res 2007;39:366-371.
4. C-Reactive protein levels and ageing male symptoms in hypogonadal men treated with testosterone supplementation. Giltray, E., et al. Andrologia 40, 398-400.
5. The Effect of Testosterone Replacement on Endogenous Inflammatory Cytokines and Lipid Profiles in Hypogonadal Men. Malkin, C, et al. J Clin Endocrinil Metab 89;331-33318, 2004.
6. Regulation of atherosclerotic plaque growth and stability by testosterone and its receptor via influence of inflammatory reaction. Li, S, et al. Vascular Pharmacology 49 (2008) 14-14
7. Testosterone alleviates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated tissue factor pathway inhibitor downregulation via suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B in endothelial cells. Jin, H, et al. Asian Journal of Andrology (2009): 266-271.
8. Testosterone suppresses tumour necrosis factor production in whole blood from men with heart failure. Pugh, P, et al. Abstract 2746. Page 498.
9. Androgen-replacement therapy depresses the ex vivo production of inflammatory cytokines by circulating antigen-presenting cells in aging thpe-2 diabetic men with partial androgen deficiency. Corrales, J, et al. Journal of Endocrinology (2006) 189, 595-604.
10. The Testicular Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor. Mealy, K, et al. Ann. Surg. April 1990 pp. 470-475.
11. Relationship of Testosterone with Inflammatory Cytokines in Men with Coronary Artery Disease. Pugh, P, et al. JACC March, 19. 2003. Abstract 1050-102.
12. Prospective Study of Effect of Androgens on Serum Inflammatory Markers in Men. Ng, M, et al. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc. Biol. 2002;22:1136-1141.
13. Fibrous cap formation of destruction the critical importance of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and matrix formation. Newby, A, and Zaltsman, A. Cardiovascular Research 41 (1999) 345-360.
14. Regulation of Atrial Natruiuretic Peptide, Thromboxane and prostaglandin production by Androgen in Elderly Men with Coronary Heart Disease. Saizhu, W and Xinxhi, W, Chinese Medical Sciences Journal December 1993 Vol. 8, No. 4, 207-209.
1. Therapy of Ischemic Cardiomyopathy With the Immunomodulating Agent Pentoxifylline. Silwa, K, et al. Circulation 2004;109:750-755.
2. Beneficial Effects of Pentoxifylline in Patients With Idiopathic dilated Cardiomyopathy Treated With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Carvedilol. Skudicky, D, et al,. Circulation 2001;103:1083-88.
3. In Vivo Downregulation of T Helper Cell 1 Immune Responses Reduces Atherogenesis in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Moce. Laurat, E, et al. Circulation 2001;104:197-202.
4. Effect of Pentoxifylline on inflammatory burden, oxidative stress and platelet aggregability in hypertensive type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Maiti, R, et al. Vascular Pharmacology 47 (2007) 118-124.
5. Efficacy of Pentoxifylline in Patients with Stable Angina Pectoris. Insel, J, et al. Angiology June 1988 pp. 514-519.he Association of Hypotestosteronemia With Coronary Artery Disease in Men. Phillips, G, et al. Arterioscler Thromb. 1994;14:701-706.
6. Pentoxifylline reduces pro-inflammatory and increases anti-inflammatory activity in patients with coronary artery disease A randomized placebo-controlled study. Fernandes, J, et al. Atherosclerosis 196 (2008) 434-442.
7. Can aortocoronary and peripheral bypass graft patency be improved by the administration of pentoxifylline on a long-term basis? Angelides, N. and Minas, C. Cardiologia 1999;44912):1059-1064.
8. Effect of pentoxifylline on proteinuria, markers of tubular injury and oxidative stress in non-diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease placebo controlled, randomized, cross-over study. Renke, M, et al. ACTA Biochimica Polonica Vol. 57, No 1/2010 pp. 119-123.
9. Effects of Carvedilol on Plasma Levels of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines. Kurum, T, et al. Texas Heart Institute Journal 2007;34:52-59.
10. Efficacy of Pentoxifylline in Patients with Stable Angina Pectoris. Insel, J, et al. Angiology The Journal of Vascular Disease June 1988 pp. 514-519.
11. In Vivo Downregulation of T Helper Cell 1 Immune Responses Reduces Atherogenesis in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice. Laurat, E, et al. Circulation 2001;104:197-202.
12. Can aortocoronary and peripheral venous bypass graft patency be improved by the administration of Pentoxifylline on a long-term basis? Angelides, N. and Minas, C. Cardiologia 1999;(44):1059-1-64.
13. Effect of Pentoxifylline on inflammatory burden, oxidative stress, and platelet aggregability in hypertensive type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Maiti, R., et al. Vascualr Pharmacology 47 (2007) 118-24.
14. Effect of Pentoxifylline in Addition to Losartan on Proteinuria and GFR in CKD: A 12-Month Randomized Trial. Lin, S., et al. A, J Kidney Dis 52:464-474.
15. Pentoxifylline reduces pro-inflammatory and increases anti-inflammatory activity in patients with coronary artery disease-A randomized placebo-controlled study. Fernandes, J, et al. Atherosclerosis 196 (2008) 434-442.